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Operationalize means to put into operation. Operational definitions are also used to define system states in terms of a specific, publicly accessible process of preparation or validation testing, which is repeatable at will. For example, 100 degrees Celsius may be crudely defined by describing the process of heating water at sea level until it is observed to boil. An item like a brick, or even a photograph of a brick, may be defined in terms of how it can be made. Likewise, iron may be defined in terms of the results of testing or measuring it in particular ways.

Vandervert (1980/1988) described in scientific detail a simple, everyday illustration of an operational definition in terms of making a cake (i.e., its recipe is an operational definition used in a specialized laboratory known as the household kitchen). Nadine velvet sandals Laurence Dacade bA4MvZfqbY
Similarly, the saying, if it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be some kind of duck , may be regarded as involving a sort of measurement process or set of tests (see Fiji Friendship Petite Bracelet Gold Vermeil on Silver Monica Vinader wmtLVTp9
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Despite the controversial philosophical origins of the concept, particularly its close association with Just Cavalli Woman Wrapeffect Asymmetric Embellished Crepe Mini Dress Bubblegum Size 42 Just Cavalli wHdmuUxRQ
, operational definitions have undisputed practical applications. This is especially so in the social and medical sciences, where operational definitions of key terms are used to preserve the unambiguous empirical testability of hypothesis and theory. Operational definitions are also important in the physical sciences .

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on scientific realism, written by Richard Boyd , indicates that the modern concept owes its origin in part to Percy Williams Bridgman , who felt that the expression of scientific concepts was often abstract and unclear. Inspired by Velvet block heel pumps Red Valentino mZou00G
, in 1914 Bridgman attempted to redefine unobservable entities concretely in terms of the physical and mental operations used to measure them. Tote Bag Anglomania Black Leather 2017 one size Vivienne Westwood 2017 Anglomania Leather sXQU49
Accordingly, the definition of each unobservable entity was uniquely identified with the instrumentation used to define it. From the beginning objections were raised to this approach, in large part around the inflexibility. As Boyd notes, "In actual, and apparently reliable, scientific practice, changes in the instrumentation associated with theoretical terms are routine, and apparently crucial to the progress of science. According to a 'pure' operationalist conception, these sorts of modifications would not be methodologically acceptable, since each definition must be considered to identify a unique 'object' (or class of objects)." [5] However, this rejection of operationalism as a general project destined ultimately to define all experiential phenomena uniquely did not mean that operational definitions ceased to have any practical use or that they could not be applied in particular cases. [ Tan Leather Sneakers Loewe VfCUfamuiJ
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Original Article
Christiaan C. Veerman , Arie O. Verkerk , Marieke T. Blom , Christine A. Klemens , Pim N.J. Langendijk , Antoni C.G. van Ginneken , Ronald Wilders , Hanno L. Tan
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Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 2013; 6: 1002-1009
Christiaan C. Veerman
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Arie O. Verkerk
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Marieke T. Blom
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Christine A. Klemens
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Pim N.J. Langendijk
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Antoni C.G. van Ginneken
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Ronald Wilders
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
Hanno L. Tan
From the Heart Center (C.C.V., M.T.B., C.A.K., H.L.T.), and Departments of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology (A.O.V., A.C.G.v.G., R.W.), Cardiology (H.L.T.), Hospital Pharmacy (P.N.J.L.), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Reinier de Graaf Group Hospitals, Delft, the Netherlands (P.N.J.L).
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Christiaan C. Veerman , Arie O. Verkerk , Marieke T. Blom , Christine A. Klemens , Pim N.J. Langendijk , Antoni C.G. van Ginneken , Ronald Wilders and Hanno L. Tan
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 2013; 6: 1002-1009 , originally published October 15, 2013
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.113.000239

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